[转载]GCC编译参数

   
 

 

GCC 使用指南

使用语法:
gcc [ option | filename ]…
   g++ [ option | filename ]…

其中 option 为 gcc 使用时的选项(后面会再详述),
   而 filename 为欲以 gcc 处理的文件

说明:
这 C 与 C++ 的 compiler 已将产生新程序的相关程序整合起来。产 生一个新的程序需要经过四个阶段:预处理、编译、汇编、连结,而这两 个编译器都能将输入的文件做不同阶段的处理。虽然原始程序的扩展名可 用来分辨编写原始程序码所用的语言,但不同的compiler,其预设的处理 程序却各不相同:

gcc  预设经由预处理过(扩展名为.i)的文件为 C 语言,并於程式
      连结阶段以 C 的连结方式处理。

g++  预设经由预处理过(扩展名为.i)的文件为 C++ 语言,并於程序连结阶段以 C++ 的连结方式处理。

原始程序码的扩展名指出所用编写程序所用的语言,以及相对应的处理方法:

   .c  C 原始程序         ; 预处理、编译、汇编
   .C  C++ 原始程序        ; 预处理、编译、汇编
   .cc C++ 原始程序        ; 预处理、编译、汇编
   .cxx C++ 原始程序        ; 预处理、编译、汇编
   .m  Objective-C 原始程序    ; 预处理、编译、汇编
   .i  已经过预处理之 C 原始程序  ; 编译、汇编
   .ii 已经过预处理之 C++ 原始程序 ; 编译、汇编
   .s  组合语言原始程序      ; 汇编
   .S  组合语言原始程序      ; 预处理、汇编
   .h  预处理文件(标头文件)    ; (不常出现在指令行)

其他扩展名的文件是由连结程序来处理,通常有:
   .o  Object file
   .a  Archive file

除非编译过程出现错误,否则 "连结" 一定是产生一个新程序的最
   後阶段。然而你也可以以 -c、-s 或 -E 等选项,将整个过程自四
   个阶段中的其中一个停止。在连结阶段,所有与原始码相对应的
   .o 文件、程序库、和其他无法自文件名辨明属性的文件(包括不以 .o
   为扩展名的 object file 以及扩展名为 .a 的 archive file)都会
   交由连结程序来处理(在指令行将那些文件当作连结程序的参数传给
   连结程序)。

选项:

   不同的选项必须分开来下:例如 -dr' 这个选项就与 -d -r' 大
   不相同。
   绝大部份的 -f' 及 -W' 选项都有正反两种形式:-fname 及
   -fno-name (或 -Wname 及 -Wno-name)。以下只列出非预设的那个
   形式。
   以下是所有选项的摘要。以形式来分类。选项的意义将另辟小节说
   明。

   一般性(概略、常用的)选项
       -c -S -E -o file -pipe -v -x language

   程序语言选项
       -ansi -fall-virtual -fcond-mismatch
       -fdollars-in-identifiers -fenum-int-equiv
       -fexternal-templates -fno-asm -fno-builtin
       -fno-strict-prototype -fsigned-bitfields
       -fsigned-char -fthis-is-variable
       -funsigned-bitfields -funsigned-char
       -fwritable-strings -traditional -traditional-cpp
       -trigraphs

   编译时的警告选项
       -fsyntax-only -pedantic -pedantic-errors -w -W
       -Wall -Waggregate-return -Wcast-align -Wcast-qual
       -Wchar-subscript -Wcomment -Wconversion
       -Wenum-clash -Werror -Wformat -Wid-clash-len
       -Wimplicit -Winline -Wmissing-prototypes
       -Wmissing-declarations -Wnested-externs -Wno-import
       -Wparentheses -Wpointer-arith -Wredundant-decls
       -Wreturn-type -Wshadow -Wstrict-prototypes -Wswitch
       -Wtemplate-debugging -Wtraditional -Wtrigraphs
       -Wuninitialized -Wunused -Wwrite-strings

   除错选项
       -a -dletters -fpretend-float -g -glevel -gcoff
       -gxcoff -gxcoff+ -gdwarf -gdwarf+ -gstabs -gstabs+
       -ggdb -p -pg -save-temps -print-file-name=library
       -print-libgcc-file-name -print-prog-name=program

  最佳化选项
       -fcaller-saves -fcse-follow-jumps -fcse-skip-blocks
       -fdelayed-branch -felide-constructors
       -fexpensive-optimizations -ffast-math -ffloat-store
       -fforce-addr -fforce-mem -finline-functions
       -fkeep-inline-functions -fmemoize-lookups
       -fno-default-inline -fno-defer-pop
       -fno-function-cse -fno-inline -fno-peephole
       -fomit-frame-pointer -frerun-cse-after-loop
       -fschedule-insns -fschedule-insns2
       -fstrength-reduce -fthread-jumps -funroll-all-loops
       -funroll-loops -O -O2

   预处理选项
       -Aassertion -C -dD -dM -dN -Dmacro[=defn] -E -H
       -idirafter dir -include file -imacros file -iprefix
       file -iwithprefix dir -M -MD -MM -MMD -nostdinc -P
       -Umacro -undef

   汇编程序选项
       -Wa,option
   连结程序选项
       -llibrary -nostartfiles -nostdlib -static -shared
       -symbolic -Xlinker option -Wl,option -u symbol

  目录选项
       -Bprefix -Idir -I- -Ldir

  Target Options
       -b machine -V version

  与机器(平台)相关的选项
       M680x0 Options
       -m68000 -m68020 -m68020-40 -m68030 -m68040 -m68881
       -mbitfield -mc68000 -mc68020 -mfpa -mnobitfield
       -mrtd -mshort -msoft-float

VAX Options
       -mg -mgnu -munix

SPARC Options
       -mepilogue -mfpu -mhard-float -mno-fpu
       -mno-epilogue -msoft-float -msparclite -mv8
       -msupersparc -mcypress

Convex Options
       -margcount -mc1 -mc2 -mnoargcount

AMD29K Options
       -m29000 -m29050 -mbw -mdw -mkernel-registers
       -mlarge -mnbw -mnodw -msmall -mstack-check
       -muser-registers

M88K Options
       -m88000 -m88100 -m88110 -mbig-pic
       -mcheck-zero-division -mhandle-large-shift
       -midentify-revision -mno-check-zero-division
       -mno-ocs-debug-info -mno-ocs-frame-position
       -mno-optimize-arg-area -mno-serialize-volatile
       -mno-underscores -mocs-debug-info
       -mocs-frame-position -moptimize-arg-area
       -mserialize-volatile -mshort-data-num -msvr3 -msvr4
       -mtrap-large-shift -muse-div-instruction
       -mversion-03.00 -mwarn-passed-structs

  RS6000 Options
       -mfp-in-toc -mno-fop-in-toc

RT Options
       -mcall-lib-mul -mfp-arg-in-fpregs -mfp-arg-in-gregs
       -mfull-fp-blocks -mhc-struct-return -min-line-mul
       -mminimum-fp-blocks -mnohc-struct-return

MIPS Options
       -mcpu=cpu type -mips2 -mips3 -mint64 -mlong64
       -mlonglong128 -mmips-as -mgas -mrnames -mno-rnames
       -mgpopt -mno-gpopt -mstats -mno-stats -mmemcpy
       -mno-memcpy -mno-mips-tfile -mmips-tfile
       -msoft-float -mhard-float -mabicalls -mno-abicalls
       -mhalf-pic -mno-half-pic -G num -nocpp

i386 Options
       -m486 -mno-486 -msoft-float -mno-fp-ret-in-387

HPPA Options
       -mpa-risc-1-0 -mpa-risc-1-1 -mkernel -mshared-libs
       -mno-shared-libs -mlong-calls -mdisable-fpregs
       -mdisable-indexing -mtrailing-colon

  i960 Options
       -mcpu-type -mnumerics -msoft-float
       -mleaf-procedures -mno-leaf-procedures -mtail-call
       -mno-tail-call -mcomplex-addr -mno-complex-addr
       -mcode-align -mno-code-align -mic-compat
       -mic2.0-compat -mic3.0-compat -masm-compat
       -mintel-asm -mstrict-align -mno-strict-align
       -mold-align -mno-old-align

  DEC Alpha Options
       -mfp-regs -mno-fp-regs -mno-soft-float -msoft-float

  System V Options
       -G -Qy -Qn -YP,paths -Ym,dir

  Code Generation Options
       -fcall-saved-reg -fcall-used-reg -ffixed-reg
       -finhibit-size-directive -fnonnull-objects
       -fno-common -fno-ident -fno-gnu-linker
       -fpcc-struct-return -fpic -fPIC
       -freg-struct-returno -fshared-data -fshort-enums
       -fshort-double -fvolatile -fvolatile-global
       -fverbose-asm

PRAGMAS
   Two #pragma' directives are supported for GNU C++, to
   permit using the same header file for two purposes: as a
   definition of interfaces to a given object class, and as
   the full definition of the contents of that object class.

   #pragma interface
       (C++ only.) Use this directive in header files
       that define object classes, to save space in most
       of the object files that use those classes. Nor-
       mally, local copies of certain information (backup
       copies of inline member functions, debugging infor-
       mation, and the internal tables that implement vir-
       tual functions) must be kept in each object file
       that includes class definitions. You can use this
       pragma to avoid such duplication. When a header
       file containing
#pragma interface' is included in
       a compilation, this auxiliary information will not
       be generated (unless the main input source file it-
       self uses #pragma implementation'). Instead, the
       object files will contain references to be resolved
       at link time.

   #pragma implementation

   #pragma implementation "objects.h"
       (C++ only.) Use this pragma in a main input file,
       when you want full output from included header
       files to be generated (and made globally visible).
       The included header file, in turn, should use
      
#pragma interface'. Backup copies of inline mem-
       ber functions, debugging information, and the in-
       ternal tables used to implement virtual functions
       are all generated in implementation files.

       If you use #pragma implementation' with no argu-
       ment, it applies to an include file with the same
       basename as your source file; for example, in
      
allclass.cc', #pragma implementation' by itself
       is equivalent  to  
#pragma  implementation
       "allclass.h"'. Use the string argument if you want
       a single implementation file to include code from
       multiple header files.

       There is no way to split up the contents of a sin-
       gle header file into multiple implementation files.

文件说明
   file.c       C source file
   file.h       C header (preprocessor) file
   file.i       经预处理过的 C source file
   file.C       C++ source file
   file.cc      C++ source file
   file.cxx     C++ source file
   file.m       Objective-C source file
   file.s       assembly language file
   file.o       object file
   a.out       link edited output
   TMPDIR/cc*     temporary files
   LIBDIR/cpp     preprocessor
   LIBDIR/cc1     compiler for C
   LIBDIR/cc1plus   compiler for C++
   LIBDIR/collect   linker front end needed on some machines
   LIBDIR/libgcc.a  GCC subroutine library
   /lib/crt[01n].o  start-up routine
   LIBDIR/ccrt0  additional start-up routine for C++
   /lib/libc.a    standard C library, 参阅 man page intro(3)
   /usr/include  standard directory for #include files
   LIBDIR/include   standard gcc directory for #include files
   LIBDIR/g++-include additional g++ directory for #include

   LIBDIR is usually /usr/local/lib/machine/version.
   TMPDIR comes from the environment variable TMPDIR (default
   /usr/tmp if available, else /tmp).

gcc最佳编译参数

摘要   本文着重介绍在不同的硬件环境下给GCC指定哪些参数才可以得到最佳的性能。   这篇文章是从一个名为Gentoo Linux的发行版的编程说明书里面分离出来的,希望对大家编译程序有帮助。

——————————————————————————–
一、1.2版(gcc 2.9.x版)
i386 (Intel), do you really want to install gentoo on that? CHOST="i386-pc-linux-gnu" CFLAGS="-march=i386 -O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer" CXXFLAGS="-march=i386 -O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer"
i486 (Intel), do you really want to install gentoo on that? CHOST="i486-pc-linux-gnu" CFLAGS="-march=i486 -O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer" CXXFLAGS="-march=i486 -O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer"
Pentium, Pentium MMX+, Celeron (Mendocino) (Intel) CHOST="i586-pc-linux-gnu" CFLAGS="-march=pentium -O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer" CXXFLAGS="-march=pentium -O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer"
Pentium Pro/II/III/4, Celeron (Coppermine), Celeron (Willamette?) (Intel) CHOST="i686-pc-linux-gnu" CFLAGS="-march=i686 -O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer" CXXFLAGS="-march=i686 -O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer"
Eden C3/Ezra (Via) CHOST="i586-pc-linux-gnu" CFLAGS="-march=i586 -O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer" CXXFLAGS="-march=i586 -O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer"
Quote : I did the original gentoo install using 1.2, with gcc 2.95 using -march=i586. i686 won't work.
K6 or beyond (AMD) CHOST="i586-pc-linux-gnu" CFLAGS="-march=k6 -O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer" CXXFLAGS="-march=k6 -O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer"
(A Duron will report "Athlon" in its /proc/cpuinfo)
Athlon (AMD) CHOST="i686-pc-linux-gnu" CFLAGS="-march=k6 -O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer" CXXFLAGS="-march=k6 -O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer"
For the following, i don't know of any flag that enhance performances…, do you ?
PowerPC CHOST="powerpc-unknown-linux-gnu" CFLAGS="-O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer" CXXFLAGS="-O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer"
Sparc CHOST="sparc-unknown-linux-gnu" CFLAGS="-O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer" CXXFLAGS="-O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer"
Sparc 64 CHOST="sparc64-unknown-linux-gnu" CFLAGS="-O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer" CXXFLAGS="-O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer"

二、1.4版(gcc 3.x版):
i386 (Intel), do you really want to install gentoo on that ? CHOST="i386-pc-linux-gnu" CFLAGS="-march=i386 -O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer" CXXFLAGS="-march=i386 -O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer"
i486 (Intel), do you really want to install gentoo on that ? CHOST="i486-pc-linux-gnu" CFLAGS="-march=i486 -O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer" CXXFLAGS="-march=i486 -O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer"
Pentium 1 (Intel) CHOST="i586-pc-linux-gnu" CFLAGS="-march=pentium -O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer" CXXFLAGS="-march=pentium -O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer"
Pentium MMX (Intel) CHOST="i586-pc-linux-gnu" CFLAGS="-march=pentium-mmx -O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer" CXXFLAGS="-march=pentium-mmx -O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer"
Pentium PRO (Intel) CHOST="i686-pc-linux-gnu" CFLAGS="-march=pentiumpro -O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer" CXXFLAGS="-march=pentiumpro -O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer"
Pentium II (Intel) CHOST="i686-pc-linux-gnu" CFLAGS="-march=pentium2 -O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer" CXXFLAGS="-march=pentium2 -O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer"
Celeron (Mendocino), aka Celeron1 (Intel) CHOST="i686-pc-linux-gnu" CFLAGS="-march=pentium2 -O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer" CXXFLAGS="-march=pentium2 -O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer"
Pentium III (Intel) CHOST="i686-pc-linux-gnu" CFLAGS="-march=pentium3 -O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer" CXXFLAGS="-march=pentium3 -O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer"
Celeron (Coppermine) aka Celeron2 (Intel) CHOST="i686-pc-linux-gnu" CFLAGS="-march=pentium3 -O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer" CXXFLAGS="-march=pentium3 -O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer"
Celeron (Willamette?) (Intel) CHOST="i686-pc-linux-gnu" CFLAGS="-march=pentium4 -O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer" CXXFLAGS="-march=pentium4 -O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer"
Pentium 4 (Intel) CHOST="i686-pc-linux-gnu" CFLAGS="-march=pentium4 -O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer" CXXFLAGS="-march=pentium4 -O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer"
Eden C3/Ezra (Via) CHOST="i586-pc-linux-gnu" CFLAGS="-march=i586 -m3dnow -O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer" CXXFLAGS="-march=i586 -m3dnow -O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer"
quote : the ezra doesn't have any special instructions that you could optimize for, just consider is a K6-3…basically a p2 with 3dnow
K6 (AMD) CHOST="i586-pc-linux-gnu" CFLAGS="-march=k6 -O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer" CXXFLAGS="-march=k6 -O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer"
K6-2 (AMD) CHOST="i586-pc-linux-gnu" CFLAGS="-march=k6-2 -O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer" CXXFLAGS="-march=k6-2 -O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer"
K6-3 (AMD) CHOST="i586-pc-linux-gnu" CFLAGS="-march=k6-3 -O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer" CXXFLAGS="-march=k6-3 -O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer"
Athlon (AMD) CHOST="i686-pc-linux-gnu" CFLAGS="-march=athlon -O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer" CXXFLAGS="-march=athlon -O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer"
Athlon-tbird, aka K7 (AMD) CHOST="i686-pc-linux-gnu" CFLAGS="-march=athlon-tbird -O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer" CXXFLAGS="-march=athlon-tbird -O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer"
Athlon-tbird XP (AMD) CHOST="i686-pc-linux-gnu" CFLAGS="-march=athlon-xp -O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer" CXXFLAGS="-march=athlon-xp -O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer"
Athlon 4(AMD) CHOST="i686-pc-linux-gnu" CFLAGS="-march=athlon-4 -O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer" CXXFLAGS="-march=athlon-4 -O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer"
Athlon XP (AMD) CHOST="i686-pc-linux-gnu" CFLAGS="-march=athlon-xp -O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer" CXXFLAGS="-march=athlon-xp -O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer"
Athlon MP (AMD) CHOST="i686-pc-linux-gnu" CFLAGS="-march=athlon-mp -O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer" CXXFLAGS="-march=athlon-mp -O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer"
603 (PowerPC) CHOST="powerpc-unknown-linux-gnu" CFLAGS="-O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer -fsigned-char" CXXFLAGS="-O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer -fsigned-char"
603e (PowerPC) CHOST="powerpc-unknown-linux-gnu" CFLAGS="-O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer -fsigned-char" CXXFLAGS="-O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer -fsigned-char"
604 (PowerPC) CHOST="powerpc-unknown-linux-gnu" CFLAGS="-O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer -fsigned-char" CXXFLAGS="-O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer -fsigned-char"
604e (PowerPC) CHOST="powerpc-unknown-linux-gnu" CFLAGS="-O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer -fsigned-char" CXXFLAGS="-O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer -fsigned-char"
750 aka as G3 (PowerPC) CHOST="powerpc-unknown-linux-gnu" CFLAGS="-mcpu=750 -O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer -fsigned-char" CXXFLAGS="-mcpu=750 -O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer -fsigned-char"
Note: do not use -march=
7400, aka G4 (PowerPC) CHOST="powerpc-unknown-linux-gnu" CFLAGS="-mcpu=7400 -O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer -fsigned-char -maltivec" CXXFLAGS="-mcpu=7400 -O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer -fsigned-char -maltivec"
Note: do not use -march=
7450, aka G4 second generation (PowerPC) CHOST="powerpc-unknown-linux-gnu" CFLAGS="-mcpu=7450 -O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer -fsigned-char -maltivec" CXXFLAGS="-mcpu=7450 -O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer -fsigned-char -maltivec"
Note: do not use -march=
PowerPC (If you don't know which one) CHOST="powerpc-unknown-linux-gnu" CFLAGS="-O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer -fsigned-char" CXXFLAGS="-O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer -fsigned-char"
Sparc CHOST="sparc-unknown-linux-gnu" CFLAGS="-O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer" CXXFLAGS="-O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer"
Sparc 64 CHOST="sparc64-unknown-linux-gnu" CFLAGS="-O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer" CXXFLAGS="-O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer"GCC 使用指南 GCC 使用指南 GCC 使用指南

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